Abu Raykhan Muhammad ibn Ahmad Beruni

Abu Raykhan Muhammad ibn Ahmad (973.4.9, the ancient city of Kot (Kat)) - 1048.11.12 Ghazna (modern Afghanistan) - a great thinker, scholar, one of the great geniuses of the Middle Ages.

For the first time in the Middle East, Beruni determined the size of the Earth’s circle, saying that the Earth could revolve around the Sun.

Beruni developed methods of geodetic and astronomical measurements and approved the geocentric system of the world by determining the dimensions of the Earth, stars and the nature.

He perfected the basic astronomical instruments used in his time (astrolabe, quadrant, sextant). For 400 years, he invented the first fixed quadrant with a radius of 7.5 meters, the largest in the world, for observing the Sun and the planets.

In his first work, The Chronology of Ancient People (1000 years), Beruni described the chronological systems of all the people known at that time.

Beruni's most important work on the world map is Masoud's Law of Astronomy and the Stars.

He knew Arabic, Persian, Greek, Syrian, and Sanskrit, and developed the rules of natural-scientific terminology for translating from one language to another.

In his work India, completed in 1030, he gave detailed information about the way of life, culture and science of the Indians, describing their religious and philosophical systems.

In 1035-36 Beruni compiled a list of his scientific works. It shows that the number of books and pamphlets he has written so far has reached 113. If we add his later works, his scientific legacy consists of 152 books and pamphlets.

In his honor the works have been translated into Latin, French, Italian, German, English, Persian and Turkish. Al Beruni's hometown was named Beruni in 1957.